Synecdoche is a trope consisting in the usage of a part to signify the whole, or the genus - the species, and vice versa.
As well as metonymy, synecdoche can be trite (as in All hands on deck! and The army included two hundred horse and three hundred foot), and genuine. Study the example of the latter:
'She saw around her, clustered about the white tables, multitudes of violently red Hps, powdered cheeks, cold, hard eyes, self-possessing arrogant faces, and insolent bosoms.' (Bennett)
What picture does the author create? How can people depicted in such a manner be characterised?
1. Study the following examples of metonymy identifying the type ofmetonymi-cal transfer:
1) I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat. (Churchill)
2) The leaves dropped off his imaginary crown of laurel, he turned to the gate, leaned against it. and cried bitterly. (Th. Hardy)
3) Give every man thine ear and few thy voice. (Слушай каждого, а говори с немногими). (Shakespeare)
4) 'Good morning, sir.' Authority has suddenly changed into subservience. -T hear you had some trouble with the turnstiles this morning." said Evelyn benevolently. - 'Trouble, sir? Turnstiles?' replied subservience, as if quite at a loss, to understand the sinister allusion. 'They've told you wrong... subservience sprang round the comer. (Bennett)
5) She is coming, my life, my fate. (Tennison)
6) We smiled at each other, but we didn't speak because there were ears all around us. (Chase)
7) 'Save your breath.' I said. 1 know exactly what you have been thinking.' (Chase)
8) Except for a lack of youth, the guests had no common theme, they seemed strangers among strangers; indeed, each face, on entering, had struggled to conceal dismay at seeing others there. (Capote)
10) The man looked a rather old forty-five, for he was already going grey. (Prichard)
11) The delicatessen owner was a spry and jolly fifty. (Ramon)
12) 'Did he say where he was going?' - 'No. He paid his rent and beat it. You don't ask Joe questions unless you want a new set of teeth. (Clifford)
13) There was something so agreeable in being so intimate with such a waistcoat: in being on such off-hand terms so soon with such a pair of whiskers that Tom was uncommonly pleased with himself. (Dickens)
14) 'Well. Mr. Weller. says the gentl'mn. you're a very good whip, and can do what you like with your horses, we know.' (Dickens)
15) Miss Tox's hand trembled as she slipped it through Mr. Dombey's arm. and felt herself escorted up the steps, preceded by a cocked hat and a Babylonian collar. (Dickens)
16) She wanted to have a lot of children, and she was glad that things were that way. that the Church approved. Then the little girl died. Nancy broke with Rome the day her baby died. It was a secret break, but no Catholic breaks with Rome casually. (O'Hara)
17) "You have nobody to blame but yourself. "The saddest words of tongue or pen." (I. Shaw)
18) Then they came in. Two of them, a man with long fair moustaches and a silent dark man... Definitely, the moustache and I had nothing in common.
19) ... Ralph could make out a familiar rhythm. - "Kill the beast! Cut his throat! Spill his blood!" - The tribe was dancing. (Golding)