They include: stylistic inversion, detached constructions, parallel constructions , chiasmus, suspense, climax, antithesis.
Stylistic Inversion. The English word order is fixed. Any change which doesn't influence the meaning but is only aimed at emphasis is called a stylistic inversion. Stylistic inversion aims at attaching logical stress or additional emotional colouring to the surface meaning of the utterance. Therefore a specific intonation pattern is the inevitable satellite of inversion.
The following patterns of stylistic inversion are most frequently met in both English prose and English poetry.
1. The object is placed at the beginning of the sentence.
2. The attribute is placed after the word it modifies, e. g. With fingers weary and worn.
3. The predicate is placed before the subject, e.g. A good generous prayer it was.
4. The adverbial modifier is placed at the beginning of the sentence.
e.g. My dearest daughter, at your feet I fall.
5. Both modifier and predicate stand before the subject, e. g. In went Mr. Pickwick.
Detached constructions. Sometimes one of the secondary members of the sentence is placed so that it seems formally inderpendent of the word it refers to. Being formally inderpendent this secondary member acquires a greater degree of significance and is given prominence by intonation. e.g. She was gone. For good.
Parallel construction is a device which may be encountered not so much in the sentence as in the macro - structures dealt with the syntactical whole and the paragraph. The necessary condition in parallel construction is identical or similar, syntactical structure in two or more sentences or parts of sentence.
Chiasums is based on repetition of syntactical patterns, but it has a reversed order in one of the utterances.
e.g. She was a good sport about all this, but so was he.
Suspense - is a compositional device which is realized through the separation of the Predicate from the Subject by deliberate introduction between them of a clause or a sentence. Thus the reader's interest is held up. This device is typical of oratoric style.
Climax (gradation) - an ascending series of words or utterances in which intensity or significance increases step by step.
e. g. Every racing car, every racer, every mechanic, every ice - cream van was also plastered with advertising.
Antithesis is a SD based on the author's desire to stress certain qualities of the thing by appointing it to another thing possessing antagonistic features. e. g. They speak like saints and act like devils.
Enumeration is a SD which separates things, properties or actions brought together and form a chain of grammatically and semantically homogeneous parts of the utterance.
e. g. She wasn't sure of anything and more, of him, herself, their friends, her work, her future.