Catachresis - is the (usually intentional) use of any figure of speech that flagrantly violates the norms of a language community.
Common forms of catachresis are:
-Using a word to denote something radically different from its normal meaning.
'Tis deepest winter in Lord Timon's purse – Shakespeare, Timon of Athens
-Using a word out of context.
'Can't you hear that? Are you blind?'
-Using paradoxical or contradictory logic.
-Creating an illogical mixed metaphor.
'The quality of mercy is not Buffy' – Joss Whedon, Buffy the Vampire Slayer
To take arms against a sea of troubles... – Shakespeare, Hamlet
Arguably, however, this is perhaps neither a catachresis nor a mixed metaphor. In context, Hamlet is pondering futility: faced with a sea of troubles, taking up a sword and shield is not going to have an effect on the oncoming wave. In this sense, the quotation is a straightforward metaphor, albeit interpretable as a catachresis.
Catachresis is often used to convey extreme emotion or alienation, and is prominent in baroque literature and, more recently, in the avant-garde.